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Interventions overview

All of these interventions, as well as others, can be incorporated into procedures for helping students and others change behaviors. A general conversational procedure to help students change can incorporate any of these interventions individually or in combination.

All interventions should be implemented in an ethical manner and use the fair-pair rule.

Additionally interventions should be selected which are least restrictive and have the greatest opportunity for success.

Least restrictive interventions require self-discipline and intrinsic motivation for students to cooperate and learn, which further increases self-discipline, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy.

Most restrictive interventions use extrinsic motivation and are often used with students that lack self-discipline. These interventions alone seldom help students develop self-discipline, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy.

Stages of misbehavior descriptions and interventions

Intervention links below are categorized into six categories in a continuum from least restrictive to most restrictive.


Self monitoring strategies to manage tension, stress, anxiety, annoyance, giving up

Social reinforcers

Stimulus Control

  • Contingencies: Can be written or oral. They are basically: If, then and When, then statements. Also know as: Grandma’s Rule or Premeck’s principle:
    Eat your beans and you can have dessert. When, then:
    When you eat your beans, then you can have dessert. If, then:
    If you eat your beans, then you can have dessert.
    Could also use what is know as a reverse of If, then:
    If I help you with the first one, then do you think you might be able to do the second? or
    After you do the first one together with the student, then... If I help you with one more, then do you think you can do the next one?
  • Self-management contracts
  • Countoon
  • Peer-management
  • Mediation
  • Modeling
  • Change time of activity
  • Change setting of activity
  • Shaping
  • Prompting
  • Extinction
  • Proximity control
  • Interest boosting
  • Student centered instruction
  • Move student’s desk
  • Move student in class
  • Antiseptic bouncing
  • Use of a study carrel
  • Physical guidance

Extrinsic Reinforcement

  • Reinforcement
  • Reinforcers
  • Rewards - beans in a jar, extra recess, free time, centers by choice, film, tape, stickers, treasure chest, stars, extra free time, recess, awards‚
  • Token economy
  • Point system
  • Contingency contracts
  • Group contingencies
  • Level systems
  • Differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO)
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA)
  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors (DRI)

Response cost

Page Overview

  • Intervention overview
  • Environmental
  • Self-monitoring
  • Social reinforcers
  • Stimulus control
  • Extrinsic Reinforcement
  • Response cost

girl with beach ball


Example of being positive:

Park on Pavement Sign