### Standard

By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.

### Generalization

Evidence consists of observations and data on which to base scientific explanations.

### Outcome

Use evidence to understand interactions and predict changes.

### Concepts

• Evidence is collected with observatons.
• Observation helps us learn.
• Observation helps understand interactions and predict changes.
• Use evidence gathered from an investigation to develop a scientific explanation.
• Practice helps us to be better observers.
• Predictions are guesses based on what people know.
• If people didn't have previous experiences, then there prediction is a "wild guess".
• Pictures can be used to represent features of objects being described.

### Generalization

Models are tentative schemes or structures that correspond to real objects, events, or classes of events, and that have explanatory power.

### Outcome

Make and use many models, including physical objects, plans, mental constructs, mathematical equations, and computer simulations to explain and predict what and how things happen in the real world.

### Concepts

• Pictures and drawings can be used to represent features of objects being described.
• An object’s motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time.
• Models are structures that are similar to real objects in some ways.
• Models may be missing detail, different size, or not able to do all of the same things.
• A model though different from the real thing can be used to learn something about the real thing.
• Create a model, graph, or illustration that represents an object, living thing, or an event.
• Explain and answer questions about a model and how it represents an object, living thing, or an event.

### Generalization

• Explanations provide interpretation, meaning, or sense to objects, organisms, or events.
• Explanations incorporate existing scientific knowledge and new evidence from observations, experiments, or models into internally consistent, logical statements, such as hypotheses, laws, principles, and theories.

### Outcome

• Students will create explanations which incorporate a scientific knowledge base, logic, and higher levels of analysis.
• Explain procedures or ideas in more than one way (e.g., sketches, charts, and graphs).

### Concepts

Explanations start with observation. Scientists raise questions about the world around them and seek answers to some of them by combining observation and trying things out.

• Objects can change and stay the same.
• Objects can be compared to other objects.
• Explanations tell how something does what it does
• People are more likely to believe your ideas if you give good reasons for them.
• One way to understand something is to think how it is like something else.
• Strong feelings can affect a person's reasoning.
• It is helpful to ask questions about what is happening to try and understand what is or has happened.
• Sometimes people aren’t sure what will happen because they don’t know everything that might be having an effect on the event.
• Some events are more likely to happen than others.
• Some events can be predicted more accurately than others.
• One way to describe something is to say how it is like something else.

### Standard

By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the position and motion of objects.

### Generalization

• Objects are located relative to other objects.
• The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling.

### Outcomes

• Use reference points to describe the position of an object.
• Describe an object’s motion by tracing its position over time.
• Demonstrate that the position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling.
• Demonstrate how sound is produced when objects vibrate.
• Change the pitch of sound by changing the rate of vibration

### Standard

By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of technological design.

### Generalization

Designs (airplane) are changed based on results of experiments and reasoning how those changes will effect to whatever the changes are applied (flight of the new plane).

### Concepts

• A tool’s design and the purpose of the tool are closely related.
• Technology can be used to build or improve something.
• Tools are a part of technology and they are used to do things better, easier, and things that could not be done otherwise.
• Tools are used to make better observations and measurements.
• Some objects occur in nature (natural objects); others have been designed and made by people to solve human problems and enhance the quality of life (design or man made).
• Drawings and simple models can be used to plan technology.
• People help other people to make and improve things
• People use objects and ideas to solve problems.
• People can't always make what they design.
• Some materials are better than others for making particular things.
• Materials that are better in some ways (stronger, cheaper) may be worse in other ways (heavier, harder to form).
• Steps are usually involved in making things.
• Tools are helpful when making things.
• Some things can't be made with out tools.
• Each kind of tool has a special purpose.
• A variety of different materials (paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal) can be used with a variety of tools (hammers, screwdrivers, clamps, rulers, scissors, hand lenses, and audio-visual equipment) to make simple constructions.
• People alone or in groups are always inventing new ways to solve problems and do work.
• Tools and the ways people do things affect all aspects of life.
• Tools and ideas are technology.
• When people want to build something new they should consider how it might affect people.

### Facts

• Materials used on airplanes today are different than materials of the past.
• Technology has allowed for the increased motor outputs and airplane speeds.

### Outcome

• Identify a simple problem.
• Communicate the problem, design, and solution.
• Propose a solution to a simple problem.
• Implement the proposed solution.
• Evaluate the implementation.
• Students will understand the influence of technology on today’s airplanes.

### Standard

By the end of fourth grade, students will develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry

Generalization

### Concepts

• Asking questions helps us learn.
• Changing objects can help us answer questions and learn.
• Communication helps us learn from other people.
• Pictures can be used to represent objects and events.
• Observations help collect information that can be used to answer questions.
• Communication helps us explain evidence and reasoning to each other.
• Communication helps us explain evidence and reasoning to each other.
• Communication requires a message being sent and received.
• Information can be communicated in many different ways each of which have advantages and disadvantages.
• Objects can be described and compared by properties.
• Science experiments normally have reproducible results and work the same way in different places.
• In science, it is helpful to work with a team and share findings with others.
• Tools can be used to make better and more accurate observations (magnifiers).
• People learn with careful observation.
• People learn by observing interactions with objects.
• People can plan and carry out experiments.
• Observations can be compared through communication of properties.
• Before and after pictures can be used to represent change.
• When people report different observations they can take more observations to try and find agreement.
• Tools help scientists make better observations, measurements, and equipment for investigations.

### Outcomes

• Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in their surroundings.
• Plan and conduct a simple investigation.
• Use simple equipment and tools (e.g., thermometers and scales) to gather data and extend the senses.
• Use data develop reasonable explanations.
• Communicate procedures, results, and explanations of an investigation.
• Students will complete an experiment to solve a problem.
• Students will learn to investigate and form a hypothesis.
• Students will recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.
• Students will, when given evidence, develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models of the objects.

### Standard

By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of objects and materials.

### Generalization

Matter occupies space and contains matter.

### Concepts

• Objects have many properties.
• Objects are identified and described by their properties.
• Magnets attract some metal objects.
• Objects can be made of one or more materials.
• Occupies space - has volume - no two objects can be in the same space at the same time.
• Is the stuff that all objects are made.

### Outcomes

• Classify objects by observable characteristics (shape, size, and color).
• Compare and contrast characteristics of common materials using tools (e.g., rulers, scales, thermometers, microscopes, and hand lenses).
• Demonstrate that materials can change from solid to liquid to gas by heating and from gas to liquid to solid by cooling.

### Standard

By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the types of resources.

### Facts

• Airplanes run on fuel.
• Larger airplanes require more fuel.
• Many different resources must be combined for an airplane to fly.
• Airplanes are able to take off at different rates depending on the resources that are used.

### Outcomes

• List examples of resources which are basic materials (e.g., air, water, and soil).
• List examples of resources produced from basic materials (e.g., food, fuel, and building materials).
• List examples of resources which are intangible materials (e.g., beauty, security, and quiet places).
• Research and report on the supply of various resources.
• tudents will know that airplane fuel is different than automobile fuel.
• Students will know that many resources are needed for an airplane to fly, not just fuel.
• Students will understand that there is a difference in automobile fuel and airplane fuel.
• Students will understand that many resources are needed to make an airplane fly.  These include, petroleum products, metal products, etc.
• Students will work with others to complete an experiment or to solve a problem.
• Students will engage in group investigations.
• Students will communicate with group members to move an investigation in a positive direction.

### Standard

By the end of the first grade, students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of materials.

### Generalization

All materials have the characteristics of mass (are made of stuff) and volume (take up space).

### Concepts

• Physical properties of ice, water, and steam are...
• Objects can be grouped according to their physical characteristics.
• Objects are composted of parts that are too small to be seen.
• Objects are composed of their own unique parts.

### Outcomes

• Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of ice, water, and steam.
• Students will describe the physical properties of solids, liquids and gases.
• Students will operationally define how solids, liquids, and gases act when placed in a container.
• Students know the physical change from one state of matter to another is called a change of state.
• The more thermal energy a substance has, the faster its particles move.
• Students will observe, describe, and measure physical and chemical properties of matter.

### Physical Science Standard

By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of motion and forces

### Facts

• Airplanes use air to fly.
• Bernoulli's principle:  pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure of the surrounding fluid.
• Airplane wings are curved, the air that moves along the top of the wing must travel farther than the air that moves along the bottom of the wing.
• Airplanes use fuel and air pressure to lift into the air.
• Airplanes use a basic law of physics that for every force, or action, there is an equal and opposite force, or reaction.
• Airplanes are able to fly because of the force created by the airplane engine.
• Airplanes are able to maneuver because of the rotors on an airplane.
• Airplanes are affected by the weather.
• Airplanes can travel different distances depending on their fuel capacity and fuel usage.

### Outcomes

• Students will know how air affects the flight of planes.
• Students will communicate and explain modern airplane technology
• Students will understand the Bernoulli's principle and the effects of air on airplanes and aerodynamics.
• Describe the motion of an airplane by its position, direction of motion, and speed.
• Demonstrate that the speed and/or direction of an airplane changes when a force is applied to it.
• Students will understand how an airplane uses motion to fly.
• Students will know that speed and/or direction of an airplane changes when a force is applied to it.
• Students will know the basic principles behind aerodynamics and airplanes.
• Students will know the basic resources that are needed to create an airplane.
• Students know that airplanes can fly. Students will understand that different airplane sizes require different amounts of force for flight.
• Students will understand that many resources are needed to construct an airplane that is capable of flying.
• Students will identify basic airplane parts off of a classroom model.
• Students will understand that different airplanes require different fuels.
• Students will understand that size affects speed.
• Students will identify different factors that cause a change in airplane speed.
• Students will identify different factors that determine how far a plane can fly.
• Students will understand that cars take a different fuel than airplanes, and airplanes take a different fuel than jets.
• Students will describe how objects can change shape depending on the force and energy placed on it.