Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erikson developmental model claims psychosocial development is a series of psychosocial crises which individuals must successfully resolve as they mature.
Of prime importance to resolve these conflicts is what adults, who care for children, do as they interact with them and suggest and schedule interactions with other children, adults, and media.
Maturation occurs as each individual progresses from one stage to the next.
|Infancy||birth - 18 months||Trust vs. mistrust|
|Early childhood||10 mo. - 3 years||Autonomy Vs doubt|
A child becomes an independent self. Play is important as a means for developing autonomy, learning about other children and adults, rules and laws are important as social order.
|Middle childhood||3-6 years||Initiative Vs guilt|
Children are increasingly able to care for themselves and their possessions. Develop the ability to realize that others may be in opposition to their behavior. Guilt may result in resolution of the conflict. Play can be categorized in two general forms:
- Solitary and dreaming and
- Interaction with others in the form of enacting life.
These enable them to think about their future as well as their present roles.
|Late childhood||7-11 years||Industry Vs inferiority|
Children at this age are determined to master tasks. Learn to work together with others for a common goal. Are constantly engaged in activities that allow them to practice. Their being successful results in industry, or failure results in inferiority.
|Adolescents||12-20 years||Identity Vs role diffusion|
Search for identity is linked to becoming a person with identity. Identity linked to a cultural, personalities, and a community (families, groups, sports, gangs...)