# Age 8 - 11, grades 3 - 5 developmental information Concrete Operational Characteristics

## Concrete Operational Characteristics

• Develop class inclusion - Use classification and generalization to solve problems (all dogs are animals, only some animals are dogs. A tree is not an animal, therefore it is not a dog. A collie is a dog, therefore it is an animal.)
• Develop serial ordering - Arrange a set of objects or data from smallest to largest or by other criteria and create a one-to-one correspondence. Arrange people from smallest to largest and and relate to age.
• Develop conservation ability to question perception and reason about reality. To use logic instead of perception to make determinations for what can appear obvious, but is not.
• Conservation of number - five is five no matter if it is five elephants or five mice. No matter if the five horses are gathered by the fence at the barn or if they are spread out across the whole 10 acre field.
• Conservation of length - Perception of two wires of equal length, a bent wire and a straight wire, suggests the straight wire is longer.
• Conservation of liquid/volume - Perception of two drinking glasses, of equal volume, with one being tall and narrow and the second being short and stout, would visually suggests the taller has a greater volume. Abstract reasoning might cause us to represent the two by imagining the tall one shrinking in height as it increased in girth.
• Conservation of solid/mass - a ball of clay will have the same amount of solid material or mass if it is rolled out as a snake, pounded as a pancake or rolled into a ball.