# Force, mass, and movement

Contents Overview

## Introduction

Subtopics include: energy, conservation of energy, potential energy, kinetic energy motion, speed, slope, mass, height, gravity, friction, and Newton's Laws.

## Ramps, incline planes, & down hill runs

### Will it get up the hill?

• Challenge learners to collect data to show a relationship between the release height or a vehicle or ball and the height to which the ball or vehicle will climb up the other side of the valley or U shaped run.
• Set up a U shaped track.

• Consider only vertical distance when making the measurements
• Measure to the nearest centimeter
• Decide on test run heights: select three - 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm, 60 cm
• Record: release height
• Record: climb height
• Review the data
• Graph the data
• Make a rule for how high a ball needs to be released to make it over a hill that is a certain height.
• Explain why or how your rule works.

### Will it make the turn?

• Challenge learners to collect data to show the relationship between the kind of turn and the speed of the ball.
• Create three kinds of turns with a track.
• Can measure the diameter: 10 cm, 20 cm 30 cm and the angle of the turn 30 degrees, 45, degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees ...
• Insert each corner and release the ball from three heights: 10 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm
• Repeat with each of the other corners.
• Record the data: type of corner, height, results
• Review the data
• Chart the data
• What is the difference in the corners A, B, and C?
• Make a rule for safe corners on coasters or ball runs.

### How fast is fast?

• Challenge learners to collect data to determine the speed of a ball or vehicle as it moves across a smooth surface or track.
• Release a vehicle or ball from a point marked on a ramp
• Determine how to releases it so it rolls approximately the same speed each time
• Determine three distances and place markers: 100 cm 200 cm 300 cm
• Find the time that it takes the vehicle or ball to reach each of the distance markers.
• Do two or three time measurements for each distance.
• Record the data: time to reach each distance marker.
• Average the times and calculate the average speed in cm/s
• Was the ball’s speed constant? Explain.
• Use your data to determine a pattern to predict the speed of the ball at different distances or started higher up the ramp.

## Simple Machines and other ideas

• Simple machines with K'Nex - include equal arm balance, free pulley system, inclined plane with wood ramp, gears & screw & auger