Illusions, Visualization, Memory, Learning, and Development
Tables - Which is longer?
Table illusion animation
Is it up or down?
Inside or outside
How Much Haze?
What is the average length of the lines?
Which Eyes are Scarrier?
Snake slither - .005 seconds recognition comes later after the fact at .05 maybe.
How many black dots?
Skull or Lady
Brain and memory
- According to hundreds of studies over the past 30 years, there is almost nothing less reliable than what an eyewitness thinks he saw. Being at a crime scene is worse with variables such as strees and the presence of a weapon.
- Of 297 cases overturned by DNA evidence in the U. S. more than 70 were based on eyewitness testimony.
- Gary Wells conducted a study where people waiting in a room witnessed a thief (a Well's confederate) steal an object valued at several hundred dollars. Even with good lighting and close proximity nearly 70% of the participants identified the wrong person in a six person photographic lineup.
- Wells has found that when people make a wrong choice and are given confirmatory feedback, they are more likely to believe they have made a correct identification and when on the witness stand say things like, "I will never forget that face as long as I live." As happened in 1985 in Georgia when Jennifer Thompson testified with certainty that Ronald Cotton raped her. After ten years in jail DNA evidence proved another man guilty.
- Roy Malpass found that the instructions given to witnesses can greatly affect the choices they make. Simply saying, "the suspect may or may not be in the this lineup" reduces wrong choices by 45 percent. Additional studies suggest a double blind method should be used with those working on a case not being present at a lineup or suspect identification.
Dr. Robert Sweetland's Notes ©