Procedures for 14 Different Teaching Syntax & Models

Inductive-Thinking Model : Syntax

  1. Determine a focus and boundaries of the inquiry and clarify goals.
  2. Collect Data and determine how it should be presented and enumerated.
  3. Group, label, and categorize data set and share results.
  4. Labeling, Categorizing. Form concepts from classification and analysis of the data to identify what the data represent and their attributes.
  5. Interpret Data
  6. Identify Critical Relationships
  7. Exploring Relationships
  8. Make Inferences
  9. Make explanation and conclusions
  10. Apply Principles
  11. Predict Consequences, Explain Unfamiliar Phenomena, Hypothesize
  12. Explain and/or Support the Predictions and Hypotheses
  13. Verify the Prediction

Concept Attainment Model: Syntax

Phase One: Presentation of Data and Identification of Concept

  • Teacher presents labeled examples.
  • Students compare attributes in positive and negative examples.
  • Students generate and test hypotheses.
  • Students state a definition according to the essential attributes.

Phase Two: Testing Attainment of the Concept

  • Students identify additional unlabeled examples as yes or no.
  • Teacher confirms hypotheses, names, concept, and restates definitions according to essential attributes.
  • Students generate examples.

Phase Three: Analysis of Thinking Strategies

  • Students describe thoughts.
  • Students discuss role of hypotheses and attributes.
  • Students discuss type and number of hypotheses.

Picture-Word Inductive Model: Syntax

Select a picture.

  • Have students identify what they see in the picture.
  • Label the picture parts identified. (The teacher draws a line from the picture to the word, says the word, spells the word and points to each letter with her or his finger or the marker, says the word again, and students spell the word with the teacher.)
  • Read/review the picture-word chart.
  • Have students classify the words into a variety of groups. Identify common concepts in the words to emphasize with the class as a whole. The students “read” the words by referring to the chart if the word is not in their sight vocabulary.
  • Read/review the picture-word chart (say, spell, and say)
  • Add words, if desired, to the picture-word chart and to the word banks.
  • Have students think of a title for their picture-word chart. (The teacher leads students to think about the “evidence” and information in their chart and about what they want to say about this information.)
  • Have student generate a sentence, sentences, or a paragraph directly related to their picture-word chart.
  • Students may classify group-generated sets of sentences.
  • The teacher models putting the sentences together into a good paragraph.
  • Read/review the sentences or paragraphs.

Science: Inquiry Model: Syntax

Phase One: Area of investigation is posed to students.

Phase Two: Students structure the problem.

Phase Three: Students identify the problem in the investigation.

Phase Four: Students speculate on ways to clear up the difficulty.


Inquiry Training Model: Syntax

Phase One: Confrontation with the Problem

  • Explain inquiry procedures.
  • Present discrepant event.

Phase Two: Data Gathering – Verification

  • Verify the nature of objects and conditions.
  • Verify the occurrence of the problem situation.

Phase Three: Data Gathering - Experimentation

  • Isolate relevant variables.
  • Hypothesize (and test) causal relationships.

Phase Four: Organizing, Formulation an Explanation - Formulate rules or explanations.

Phase Five: Analysis of the Inquiry Process - Analyze inquiry strategy and develop more effective ones.

Memory Model: Syntax

Phase One: Attending to the Material - Use techniques of underlining, listing, reflecting.

Phase Two: Developing Connections - Make material familiar and develop connections using key word, substitute –word, and link-word system techniques.

Phase Three: Expanding Sensory Images - Use techniques of ridiculous association and exaggeration. Revise images.

Phase Four: Practicing Recall - Practice recalling the material until it is completely learned.

Synectics Model: - Creating Something New: Syntax

Phase One: Description of the Present Condition - Teacher has students describe situation or topic as they see it no.

Phase Two: Direct Analogy - Students suggest direct analogies, select one, and explore (describe) it further.

Phase Three: Personal Analogy - Students “become” the analogy they selected in phase two.

Phase Four: Compressed Conflict - Students take their descriptions from phases two and three, suggest several compressed conflicts, and choose one.

Phase Five: Direct Analogy - Students generate and select another direct analogy, based on the compressed conflict.

Phase Six: Reexamination of the Original Task - Teacher has students move back to original task or problem and use the last analogy and/or the entire synectics experience.

Advance Organizer Model: Syntax

Phase One: presentation of Advance Organizer

  • Clarify the aims of the lesson.
  • Present organizer.
  • Identify defining attributes.
  • Give examples or illustrations where appropriate.
  • Provide context.
  • Repeat.
  • Prompt awareness of learners relevant knowledge and experience.

Phase Two: Presentation of Learning Task or Material

  • Present material.
  • Make logical order of learning material explicit.
  • Link material to organizer.

Phase Three: Strengthening Cognitive Organization

  • Use principles of integrative reconciliation.
  • Elicit critical approach to subject matter.
  • Clarify ideas.
  • Apply ideas actively (such as by testing them).

Group Investigation Model of Learning and Teaching: Syntax

Phase One - Students encounter puzzling situation (planned or unplanned).

Phase Two - Students explore reactions to the situation.

Phase Three - tudents formulate study task and organize for study (problem definition, role, assignments, etc.).

Phase Four - Independent and group study.

Phase Five - Students analyze progress and process.

Phase Six - Recycle activity.

Role Playing Model: Syntax

Phase One: Warm Up the Group

  • Identify or introduce problem.
  • Make problem explicit.
  • Interpret problem story, explore issues.
  • Explain role playing.

Phase Two: Select Participants

  • Analyze roles.
  • Select role players.

Phase Three: Set the Stage

  • Set line of action.
  • Restate roles.
  • Get inside problem situation.

Phase Four: Prepare the Observers

  • Decide what to look for.
  • Assign observation tasks.

Phase Five: Enact

  • Begin role play.
  • Maintain role play.
  • Break role play.

Phase Six: Discuss and Evaluate

  • Review action of role play (events, positions, realism).
  • Discuss major focus.
  • Develop next enactment.

Phase Seven: Reenact - Play revised roles; suggest next steps or behavioral alternatives.

Phase Eight: Discuss and Evaluate - As in phase six.

Phase Nine: Share Experiences and Generalize

  • Relate problem situation to real experience and current problems.
  • Explore general principles of behavior.
  • Source: Based on Fannie Shaftel and George Shaftel, Role Playing of Social
  • Values (Englewod Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967).

See also

Jurisprudential Inquiry Model: Syntax

Phase One: Orientation to the Case

  • Teacher introduces materials.
  • Teacher reviews facts.

Phase Two: Identifying the Issues

  • Students synthesize facts into a public policy issue.
  • Students select one policy issue for discussion.
  • Students identify values and value conflicts.
  • Students recognize underlying factual and definitional questions.

Phase Three: Taking Positions

  • Students articulate a position.
  • Students state basis of position in terms of the social value or consequences of the decision.

Phase Four: Exploring the Stance, Patterns of Argumentation

  • Establish the point at which value is violated (factual).
  • Prove the desirable or undesirable consequences of a position (factual).
  • Clarify the value conflict with analogies.
  • Set priorities. Assert priority of one value over another and demonstrate lack of gross violation of second value.

Phase Five: Refining and Qualifying the Positions

  • Students state positions and reasons for positions, and examine a number f similar situation.
  • Students qualify positions.

Phase Six: testing Factual Assumptions behind Qualified Positions

  • Identify factual assumptions and determine if they are relevant.
  • Determine the predicted consequences and examine their factual validity (will they actually occur?).

Nondirective Model: Syntax

Phase One: Defining the Helping Situation - Teacher encourages free expression of feelings.

Phase Two: Exploring the Problem

  • Student is encouraged to define problem
  • Teacher accepts and clarifies feelings.

Phase Three: Developing Insight

  • Student discusses problem
  • Teacher supports student.

Phase Four: Planning and Decision Making

  • Student plans initial decision making.
  • Teacher clarifies possible decisions.

Phase Five: Integration

  • Student gains further insight and develops more positive actions.
  • Teacher is supportive.
  • Action Outside the Interview
  • Student initiates positive actions.

Direct Instruction Model: Syntax

Phase One: Orientation

  • Teacher establishes content of the lesson.
  • Teacher reviews previous learning.
  • Teacher establishes lesson objectives.
  • Teacher establishes the procedures for the lesson.

Phase Two: Presentation

  • Teacher explains/demonstrates new concepts of skill.
  • Teacher provides visual representation of the task.
  • Teacher checks for understanding.

Phase Three: Structured Practice

  • Teacher leads groups through practice examples in lock step.
  • Students respond to questions.
  • Teacher provides corrective feedback for errors and reinforces correct practice.

Phase Four: Guided Practice

  • Students practice semi-independently.
  • Teacher circulates, monitoring student practice.
  • Teacher provides feedback through praise, prompt, and leave.

Phase Five: Independent Practice

  • Students practice independently at home or in class.
  • Feedback is delayed.
  • Independent practices occur several times over an extended period.

Other direct models

Simulation Model: Syntax

Phase One: Orientation

  • Present the broad topic of the simulation and the concepts to be incorporated into the simulation activity at hand.
  • Explain simulation and gaming.
  • Give overview of the simulation.

Phase Two Participant Training

  • Set up the scenario (rules, roles, procedures, scoring, types of decisions to be made, goals).
  • Assign roles.
  • Hold abbreviated practice session.

Phase Three: Simulation Operations

  • Conduct game activity and game administration.
  • Obtain feedback and evaluation (of performance and effects of decisions).
  • Clarify misconceptions.
  • Continue simulation.

Phase Four: Participant Debriefing (Any or All of the Following Activities)

  • Summarize events and perceptions.
  • Summarize difficulties and insights.
  • Analyze process.
  • Compare simulation activity to the real world.
  • Relate simulation activity to course content.
  • Appraise and redesign the simulation.

Source: Bruce Joyce, Marsha Weil and Emily Calhoun. Models of Teaching. eighth edition. (2009) Pearson Education.

Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes
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